Human Population Change

Changes in Population

A Cause and Effect Essay

By Clyde Marc L. Garcia


Population has been increasing since man appeared on earth. It has no technical solution since human beings are capable of reproducing other human beings. Population change cannot also be stopped; it can only inhibit changes. However, there are natural factors that give changes to population. Changes in population are caused by the following factors: fertility, mortality, and migration.

            One factor that causes changes in population is fertility. Fertility is the capability of women to give birth to a live child. When a man is born, it increases the population. Women are capable of giving more than twenty children during their childbearing years, from menstruation to menopausal period (Espiritu, 1979). For, instance, a certain woman had given birth to twenty children, all female, during her fertility years. Eventually, these twenty women will also get pregnant soon when they reach their respective fertility ages. Having this case of giving birth, it is conspicuous that population will merely increase regardless of mortality. Through advances in scientific medication and technology, more and more children reach maturity ages and develop their capabilities of producing other human beings. Today, human were able to nurture their children until the time that they can now be independent with their own selves. As a consequence, population will get increase. As a matter of fact, the increase of population today is much greater than ever before.

            Another cause that leads to changes in population is mortality. It refers to the incidence of death in a society’s population (Macionis, 1995). Death is the end of one’s life on earth and will naturally decrease the population. A low mortality indicates a longer life expectancy, the average number of years a person can expect to live at the time of his birth. It is not an indication that the population is decreasing but an indication for a longer life that people can expect to live. Third world countries have gradually high rate of mortality compared to developed nations like United States of America. Nations which belonged to the third world like Philippines have poor sanitation that causes death especially to children since children are more susceptible to diseases of sanitation than adult. In addition, lack of resources as well as health care knowledge could also lead to mortality. Even if resources are available but people don’t have the awareness to deal with those resources, it will not be effective and may not prevent death among people.      

And lastly, migration could increase as well as decrease the population of one’s place. Transferring from one place to another has direct effects to human population change. Due to lack of financial need people tend to move to other places within or outside the country hoping for available jobs. However, there are also people who travel and settle to another country. In fact, there are two types of migration: international and internal migration. International migration means movement of people from one country to another country and on the other hand internal refers to the movement of people from one place to another within the country. People engaged in these kinds of migration primarily for the betterment of their lives. Unconsciously, they are decreasing and in the same way increase the population of one’s place.

            Population could not cause changes to itself. There must be bearers for the causes to take effect. At a certain range, a change in population would remain constant unless there will be disturbances. If all families around the world would come up with huge number of children we can predict that it will also lead to a huge increase in population. Definitely, this can surpass the country’s ability to supply the necessary need of living to all of them. Likewise, death can affect the population. But in today’s situation it seems that death rate is conspicuously lower than the fertility rate. Nevertheless, it can decrease the population.  Furthermore, migration is another factor but it doesn’t really decrease nor increase the total population of the world, it only changes the level of population in a certain place due to the transferring of people.



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